The productive potential of backcrossed Nigerian indigenous chickens with exotic birds under Southern Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria especially for fertility and hatchability was evaluated using eight hundred and fifty (850) eggs from crosses involving frizzled feather Rhode Island Red crossbred backcrossed to Rhode Island Red dam (FFRIR x RIR) (200), normal feathered Rhode Island Red crossbred backcrossed to Rhode Island Red dam (NFRIR x RIR) (225), Fulani ecotype Rhode Island Red crossbred backcrossed to Rhode Island Red dam (FERIR x RIR (210) and naked neck Rhode Island Red crossbred backcrossed to Rhode Island Red dam (NNRIR x RIR) (215). Data were obtained on number of eggs set, number of fertile eggs, infertile eggs, number of fertile eggs hatched, fertile eggs not hatched, chicks dead in shell and analyzed by SAS (2009)1 using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant (p<0.05) effect of genotype on the eggs set, number of fertile eggs, infertile eggs, number of fertile eggs hatched, fertile eggs not hatched, chicks dead in shell were observed. NFRIR x RIR birds had more of eggs set (68.85)coupled with lowest infertile eggs (18.55) while NNRIR x RIR chickens had the superior mean number of fertile eggs hatched (35.35), percentage fertile eggs (89.29), number of fertile eggs hatched (33.27) and least number of chicks dead in shell (14.65). The correlation coefficients between egg sets and other parameters evaluated were generally negative. The correlation magnitudes for FFRIR x RIR chickens was between -0.57 to 0.77 while that of NFRIR x RIR chickens ranges between -0.43 to 0.75, FERIR x RIR birds varied from -0.37 to 0.60 and NNRIR x RIR chickens was between -0.36 to 0.69. The use of NNRIR x RIR backcrossed chicken should be encouraged for better percentage of fertility, hatchability and lesser chicks dead in shell.
“Cold pressed Ground-nut oil” is used as a cooking oil, especially used for sautéing and deep frying. It has a high smoke point which is suitable for Indian cooking. Cold pressing technique retains all its natural flavor, aroma, nutritive value making this oil excellent for cooking and adds more taste to food dishes. Several studies have revealed that groundnuts contain a good source of compounds like resveratrol, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and phytosterols that block the absorption of cholesterol from the diet. It also contains Co-enzyme Q10 and arginine that is recognized for having disease preventive properties and are thinking to promote longevity. Groundnut Oil was probed in the laboratory and results showed that it contains Total Fat (99.86g/ 100g), of which MUFA (61.74g), PUFA (19.27g), SAFA (18.83g) and cholesterol (0g).
The objectives of this study are to investigate the qualitative and quantitive analysis of green and black tea that extracted by water, ethanol and petroleum ether. The results revealed that the presence of alkaloid, tannin, steroid, flavonoid and carbohydrate in green and black tea extracted by water ethanol and petroleum ether. In addition, extraction of water for green and black teat contains saponins while extraction of ethanol and petroleum ether for both teas not contains saponins. Extraction of ethanol and petroleum ether for green and black tea contains cardenolide and finally extraction of water, ethanol and petroleum ether for both teas not contains anthraquiaone and coumarin. The alkaloid content for extraction green tea by water is 5.4mg/g, by ethanol is 4.3mg/g and by petroleum ether is 4.6mg/g. While alkaloid content of extraction for black tea by water is 5.4mg/g, by ethanol is 4.3mg/g and by petroleum ether is 4.mg/g, respectively. The tannin content of extraction for green tea by water 1.2%, by ethanol is1.8% and petroleum ether is 1.5%. While tannin contents of extraction for black tea by water is 1.2%, by ethanol is 0.5% and petroleum is 1%.
A study was conducted to evaluate the semen characteristics and egg quality on three strains of indigenous Nigerian turkeys, fed different levels of dietary energy and protein at the Teaching and Research farm of the Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba State. A total of 120 day-old poults of all the strains of indigenous turkey were used for the experiment. The experiments lasted for 11 months (July, 2018 –August, 2019), where poults were brooded on commercial feed for the period of 8 weeks. At the age of 64 days the birds were randomly allotted into four treatment dietary levels for growers; T1-control (Commercial feeds), T2-low energy high protein(LEHP), T3-high energy low protein(HELP), and T4-high energy high protein(HEHP). At the age of 196 days, eggs laid was recorded from T1 of all the three strains of turkey. Eggs were collected in batches after every 8days for 5 sets only. Eggs were candled for fertility and hatchability at the day 7of laying. Parameters considered were, egg quality, semen characteristics and testicular morphology among the strains and treatments. The egg quality egg quality studied showed Signiant (P<0.05) differences among the treatment groups. The results on the gonadal sperm reserves (trestles), extra gonadal sperm reserve (epididymis) and vas deferens showed significant (P<0.05) differences among the treatment groups except for treatments T1, T3, and T4. In conclusion, the varying dietary levels on different strains of indigenous turkeys used in this study, account for differences in growth rate, egg production and reproductive parameters. The preliminary results reported in this paper are a beginning and more in-depth research is required in that respect.
The uses of feed additives are an ideal tool to boost the profits of poultry producers since the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry and animal feed has been banned in many countries. Numerous studies had affirmed the use of bioactive plant as additives in poultry feed. Beneficial effects of bioactive plant substances in animal nutrition may include the stimulation of appetite and feed intake, the improvement in endogenous digestive enzyme secretion, activation of immune response and antibacterial, antiviral and antioxidant actions such plant is turmeric plant. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of turmeric powder on growth performance index of broiler chickens. A total of 140 day old, commercial broiler chicks of Ross strain were randomly divided into four treatments having five replications comprises of seven birds per replicate. The birds of control group (T1) were provided broiler starter and finisher rations while the chickens of other three dietary treatments were also provided the same diet but supplemented with turmeric powder at the rate of 2.0 (T2), 4.0 (T3) and 6.0 (T4) g/kg feed. Data were obtained on average body weight, gain in body weight, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency on weekly basis. The results shows that the values of average body weight, gain in body weight and performance index (PI) were significantly (P<0.05) improved in diet T4 followed by diets T3, T2 and the least in diet T1 while values of feed consumption were lowest in diet T4 followed by diets T3, T2 and the least in T1 group. Supplementation of turmeric powder in dietT4 also showed best result in terms of feed conversion efficiency (FCE). No mortality was observed throughout the experimental period with conclusion that dietary supplementation of turmeric powder up to 6.0g/kg was beneficial without adverse effect on the growth performance index of broiler chickens.